Spinal Fusion

What is Spinal Fusion?

Spinal fusion surgery can relieve back pain symptoms that result from a variety of different spinal conditions and diseases. During the procedure, a surgeon will use either bone grafts or bone-stimulating proteins to stimulate the growth of bone tissue between two vertebrae. Over time, the bone tissue that forms will bind the bones together.
Fusing two vertebrae does two things for patients who suffer from back pain:
  • It limits motion between two bones that are causing pain
  • It creates more stability.
Because it changes the flexibility of one portion of a patient’s spine, spinal fusion may in turn cause additional strains in other areas. This is why physical therapy during recovery plays a big role in ensuring these other areas remain strong and flexible.


Why is spinal fusion performed?

Spinal fusion is performed to relieve chronic pain that interferes with everyday activities and can’t be relieved using more conservative, non-surgical approaches. The procedure may be recommended for patients who have:
  • Spondylolisthesis is a condition in which one vertebra slips forward over another, resulting in nerve crowding and symptoms such as nerve tingling, pain, and numbness.
  • Spinal instability due to arthritis or other degenerative diseases,
  • Spinal deformity, such as curvature or rounding of the spine.
  • Vertebral fractures that result in instability issues.
Spinal fusion surgery is also commonly performed in connection with other procedures, such as disc removal or after laminectomy or foraminotomy. Laminectomy and foraminotomy are both procedures that remove portions of the spine bone to relieve nerve impingement. In some cases, spinal fusion may be used to provide stability in patients with chronic and debilitating low back pain for which no specific cause can be found.

How is spinal fusion performed?

Several techniques have been developed to perform spinal fusion, and Dr. Jenkins will select a specific technique depending on each patient’s unique needs. He will also consider the location of the spine that is being treated.

In general, an incision will be made over the spine, either directly over the affected area or on either side. Some procedures use an anterior approach, which means the incision will be made in the abdomen or the throat. Muscles and other soft tissues are moved away from the treatment area to enable the doctor to see your spine.

Once the treatment area can be easily accessed, the bone graft is placed between or around the vertebrae, and metal plates, screws, or rods are implanted to keep the spine stable while the graft material fuses with your vertebrae, a process that usually takes several months.

Some minimally invasive surgeries may use bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) instead of bone grafts. These proteins stimulate bone growth in the affected vertebrae to achieve natural fusion. When grafts are used, they may be taken from the patient’s own body (autologous grafts), or they may come from a bone bank. Autologous grafts are often taken from the pelvis and are removed and prepared just before being implanted


Dr. Jenkins will do a thorough evaluation of your current levels of pain, your patient history, and your MRI imaging before recommending a particular course of action.

Generally speaking, patients who are good candidates for spinal surgery have been suffering from chronic back pain that cannot be managed through nonsurgical treatments like physical therapy, NSAIDs, or back bracing. The spine condition being relegated to one or two discs or vertebrae is also a good indication that your pain will be helped by spinal fusion surgery.

What is recovery like?

Most spinal fusion procedures require a hospital stay of two to three days to enable the area to complete the initial stages of healing and enable inflammation to begin to recede. During the recovery period, Dr. Jenkins will likely prescribe pain medication to minimize discomfort. He may also prescribe a brace or soft cervical collar to keep the spine in the correct alignment.

Strenuous physical activity like heavy lifting and twisting will be restricted for several weeks. During recovery, physical therapy can help restore strength, flexibility, and mobility, as well as identify proper postures while sitting and moving to keep the spine properly aligned and reduce strain on neighboring vertebrae. Usually, several months are required before the bone grafts will completely fuse with the rest of the spine.

Will insurance cover the procedure?

Spinal fusion is a well-established procedure. Most insurance companies offer coverage for the procedure when it’s considered medically necessary to relieve specific symptoms that affect everyday life, and which cannot be treated with more conservative approaches such as medication and physical therapy. To determine the level of coverage provided by your plan, call your plan administrator or consult with our staff who can contact your insurance company on your behalf.